near northern Vietnam mainly at an elevation of 600 to 800 m, and below 'Hak Ip' is also midseason and large-seeded there. The suggested hybrid origin of some lychee cultivars can be supported or refuted on the basis of their isozyme phenotypes. Carbaryl sprays considerably reduce the losses. The latter are called "dry- and -clean" and are highly prized. 6, 39-41. Lychee clusters shipped to France by air from Madagascar have arrived in fresh condition when packed 13 lbs (6 kg) to the carton and cushioned with leaves of the traveler's tree (Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn.). In northern Queensland, 'Kwai Mi' is the earliest cultivar grown, and about 10% of the fruits have "chicken tongue" seeds. It is a large spreading tree which is easily managed with … Very early in season. 'Kwa Iuk' or 'Kua lu' (hanging green) is a famous lychee; large, red with a green tip and a typical green line; "dry-and-clean"; of outstanding flavor and fragrance. LYCHEE. The Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus aonidum, has been seen on lychee trees, also the banana-shaped scale, Coccus acutissimus, and green-shield scale, Pulvinaria psidii. First, air-layers from superior trees are planted 4 ft (1.2 m) apart in "stool beds" where enriched holes have been prepared and left open for 2 weeks. Common Name: Lychee Botanical Name: Litchi chinensis Family: Sapindaceae Origin: Southeast China Avg. It sucks the sap from young twigs and they often die; at least there is a high rate of fruit-shedding. In 1960, over 6,000 lbs (2,720 kg) were shipped to New York, 4,000 lbs (1,814 kg) to California, nearly 6,000 lbs (2,720 kg) to Canada, and 3,900 lbs (1, 769 kg) were consumed in Florida, though this was far from a record year. Queensland Fruit and Vegetable News 53, In China, lychees are preferably dried in the sun on hanging wire trays and brought inside at night and during showers. Of course, there are many bearing trees in home gardens that are not represented in production figures. Hurricane Andrew when about a third of the trees were lost. Yearbook of the Australian Lychee Growers Association. In Florida, lychee trees are occasionally subject to green scurf, or algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros virescens), leaf blight (Gleosporium sp. Hot-air-blast at 160º F(70º C) dries seedless fruits in 48 hours. A total of 16 varieties became well established in Hawaii, including 'Hak Ip' which has become second to 'Kwai Mi' in importance. Fire-oven and vacuum-oven drying were found unsatisfactory. In 1920, Professor Groff obtained seedlings of 'Shan Chi' (mountain lychee) from Kwantung Province, together with air-layers of 'Sheung shu wai', 'No mai ts 'z', and 'T' im ngam' (sweet cliff). Fruit 1 1/3 in (3.4 cm) long; heart-shaped, oval or oblong; pink-red to carmine with orange-red tubercles; skin very rough, leathery, non-adherent; flesh gray-white, firm, of good subacid flavor; seed oblong-cylindrical, fully developed. A 70% success rate has been achieved in splice-grafting in South Africa. The use of very young rootstocks, only 1/4 in (6 mm) in diameter and wrapping the union with strips of vinyl plastic film, have given good results. Batten, D.J. Old oak roots and stumps have been found thoroughly infected with the fungus. In South Africa, the fruit is of medium size, nearly round but slightly oval, reddish-brown. cause much fruit damage and falling in northern Queensland. was introduced to Florida before 1880 but attracted little attention until the 1940s when its suitability for fruit production was noted by a group who thereupon worked to popularize the crop. The application of growth regulators, at various rates, has shown no significant effect on root development in the Mexican experiments. (The fruit is red when fresh.) 'Late Seedless', or 'Late Bedana'. Drying of Lychees The clusters are usually clipped with a portion of stem and a few leaves attached to prolong freshness. Tests at CSIRO, Div. lychee cultivars in subtropical Queensland. It is never done right after rain, as the wet fruit is very perishable. 112, 125-136. Three to four evenly spaced laterals with sufficiently wide . Honey from bee colonies in lychee groves in Florida is light amber, of the highest quality, with a rich, delicious flavor like that of the juice which leaks when the fruit is peeled, and the honey does not granulate. It first fruited at Santa Barbara in 1914. Technical Abstract: Most lychee varieties from China do not flower under the mild Hawaii winter climate. 2', 'Dehra Dun', and 'Kalkattia'. The leaflets are flat with slightly recurved margins and taper to a sharp point. Southern In the early 1960's, interest in this crop was renewed and some new plantings were being made on irrigated land. It was found that shade-drying for 2 days before full exposure to the sun prevented cracking. In 1492, a list of 40 lychee varieties, mostly named for families, was published in the Annals of Fukien. If pre-treated with 0.5% copper sulphate solution and kept in perforated polyethylene bags, they will remain fresh somewhat longer. In India, a 5-year-old tree may produce 500 fruits, a 20-year-old tree 4,000 to 5,000 fruits–160 to 330 lbs (72.5-149.6 kg). In China it is cultivated in sandy or clayey loam, "river mud", moist sandy clay, and even heavy clay. In 1928, 16 varieties from India were planted at Lowe's Orchards, Southport, Natal, but the records were lost and they remained unnamed. By their method, a branch of a chosen tree is girdled, allowed to callus for 1 to 2 days and then is enclosed in a ball of sticky mud mixed with chopped straw or dry leaves and wrapped with burlap. 'San yueh hung', or 'Sam ut hung' (third month red), also called 'Ma yuen', 'Ma un', 'Tsao kuo', 'Tso kwo', 'Tsao li', or 'Tsoli' (early lychee) is grown along dykes. Food Uses My Kaimana is about the same size as yours and it is also flowering. It is possible to air-layer branches up to 4 in (10 cm) thick, and to take 200 to 300 layers from a large tree. Palmer Estate in Belleair where C.E. The larvae of a small moth, Acrocerops cramerella, eat developing seeds and the pith of young twigs. of Food Research, New South Wales, Australia, in 1982, showed good color retention, retardation of weight loss and fungal spoilage in lychees dipped in hot benomyl 0.05% at 125.6º F (52º C) for two minutes and packed in trays with PVC "skrink" film covering. This new growth is seldom subject to a freeze about Canton. The fruits may be layered with pistachio ice cream and whipped cream in parfait glasses, as dessert. Keeping Quality, Storage and Shipping [Tree bears a moderate crop] in midseason. Others are the six-spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus, the leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, and less troublesome creatures such as the several species of Scarabaeidae (related to June bugs) which attack leaves and flower buds. The tree bears a moderate crop, early in season. The tree is very compact with upright branches, and prefers a cooler climate than that of coastal north Queensland where it does not fruit heavily. The lychee attains maximum growth and productivity on deep alluvial loam but flourishes in extreme southern Florida on oolitic limestone providing it is put in an adequate hole and irrigated in dry seasons. ‘Groff’ and ‘Kaimana’ are seed­ ling selections originating in Hawaii. Menzel, C.M. Annals of lychee in Guangdong Province. Lychee varieties (Agfact H6.27 New South Wales Department of Agriculture. Few diseases have been reported from any lychee-growing locality. For bearing-age trees, cut off all water and fertilizer by October. Souey Tung, Haak Yip, Tai So and Brewster. 'Wai Chi' is late in season (December), has small, round fruits, basically yellow overlaid with red; the seed is small and oval. ARS researchers have developed a practical management protocol that has improved consistency and reliability of fruit production by "Kaimana" lychee trees in Hawaii. This pest is combatted by shaking the trees in winter, collecting the bugs and dropping them into kerosene. Lychees placed in polyethylene bags with moss, leaves, paper shavings or cotton packing have retained fresh color and quality for 2 weeks in storage at 45º F (7.22º C); for a month at 40º F (4.44º C). Girdling of trees that begin to flush in October and November is ineffective. These pests are so detrimental that growers have adopted the practice of enclosing bunches of clusters (with most of the leaves removed) in bags made of "wet-strength" paper or unbleached calico 6 to 8 weeks before harvest-time. 'Kaimana'trees But there were no large plantings until an improved method of propagation was developed by Col. William R. Grove who became acquainted with the lychee during military service in the Orient, retired from the Army, made his home at Laurel (14 miles south of Sarasota, Florida) and was encouraged by knowledgeable Prof. G. Weidman Groff, who had spent 20 years at Canton Christian College. 'Kwai mi' or 'Kuei Wei', (cinnamon flavor) which came to be called 'Mauritius' is smaller, heart-shaped, with rough red skin tinged with green on the shoulders and usually having a thin line running around the fruit. The fruits resembled 'Brewster' but were more elongated, were home in large clusters, and the flesh was firm, not leaking juice when peeled. The fruit flies, Ceratites capitata and Pterandrus rosa make minute holes and cracks in the skin and cause internal decay. Two leaf rollers, Argyroploce leucaspis, and A. aprobola, are active on lychee trees in India. The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, also attacks the lychee in South Africa but is less prevalent. W.M. ranks eleven in the list of economic fruit crops in Thailand. originated in southern China and possibly in northern Vietnam and the Malay Peninsula. (50) 50 product ratings - 7 Lucky Bamboo Plant 4" Stalks, Feng Shui, GIFT, LIVE PLANT Free Shipping Today they are grown on every continent except Antarctica, and they are famed as the "King of Fruits." 'Bedana' is grown only in home gardens and the fruits have large seeds unlike the usual "chicken tongue" seeds of the fruits of this cultivar borne in India i. production centre is in the north at elevations of 300 to 600 m between Our tree ripened Hawaii ‘Kaimana’ Lychee are large and have thin red skin and juicy translucent fruit with a small pit. lychee but smaller and rounder, with smoother, dull yellow to light brown skin, and a more aromatic, spicy fruit. Fertilizer experiments on fine sand in central Florida have shown that medium rates of N (either sulfate of ammonia or ammonium nitrate), P. In limestone soil, it may be necessary to spread chelated iron 2 or 3 times a year to avoid chlorosis. It has sweet flesh with little scent and the seed size is variable. 'Rose-scented'. The leaf-eating false-unicorn caterpillar (Schizura ipomeae), which is parasitized by a tachinid fly (Thorocera floridensis) feeds on the leaves. Exceptional trees have borne 1,000 lbs (455 kg) of fruit per year. originated in southern China and possibly in northern Vietnam and the In time, India became second to China in lychee production, total plantings covering about 30,000 acres (12,500 ha). 1', 'Seedless No. 'Gulabi'. The 'Hak ip' lychee, introduced into South Florida just prior to hurricane Andrew, has experienced widespread commercial plantings and is just now beginning to come into significant production. In most areas where lychees are grown, the most serious foliage pest is the erinose, or leaf-curl, mite, Aceria litchii, which attacks the new growth causing hairy, blister-like galls on the upperside of the leaves, thickening, wrinkling and distorting them, and brown, felt-like wool on the underside. A tree of the 'Bedana' was introduced from India in 1913. 78 pp. Peeled and pitted, they are commonly added to fruit cups and fruit salads. Florida researchers have demonstrated the feasibility of drying untreated lychees at 120º F (48.8º C) with free-stream air flow rates above 35 CMF/f. Singh resists the common belief that the lychee needs winter cold spells that provide periods of temperature between 30° and 40° F (-1.11° and 4.44° C) because it does well in Mauritius where the temperature is never below 40° F (-1.11° C). The cultivar was named with the approval of the Florida Lychee Growers Association. Sherbet is made by extracting the juice from fresh, seeded lychees and adding it to a mixture of prepared plain gelatin, hot milk, light cream, sugar and a little lemon juice, and freezing. Or the fruit may be stuffed with a blend of cream cheese and mayonnaise, or stuffed with pecan meats, and garnished with whipped cream. One of the most unique flavor fruit you will ever taste. A worker can harvest 55 lbs (25 kg) of fruits per hour. In China, the seeds are credited with an analgesic action and they are given in neuralgia and orchitis. The earth around the parent plants is leveled and the process of fertilization, cultivation, ringing and earthing-up and harvesting of stools is repeated over and over for years until the parent plants have lost their vitality. Menzel, Freshly picked lychees keep their color and quality only 3 to 5 days at room temperature. In his book, The Litchi, Dr. Lal Behari Singh wrote that Bihar is the center of lychee culture in India, producing 33 selected varieties classified into 15 groups. 'Pyazi'. The flesh is white and firm; there is no leaking juice; the flavor is excellent, sweet and subacid; most of the fruits have abortive, "chicken-tongue" seeds and, accordingly have 20% more flesh than if the seeds were fully developed. Studies in Mexico have led to the conclusion that, for maximum root formation, branches to be air-layered should not be less than 5/8 in (15 mm) in diameter, and, to avoid undue defoliation of the parent tree, should not exceed 3/4 in (20 mm). Many Layered trees were available from Reasoner's Royal Palm Nurseries in the early 1920's, and the Reasoner's and the U.S. Department of Agriculture made many new introductions for trial. Lychee are sweet and tangy and have been a favored fruit in Asia for centuries. The larvae of a native leaf beetle, Exema nodulosa, has been found puncturing and girdling lychee branchlets 1/8 to 1/4 in (3-6 mm) thick. The fruits may be layered with pistachio ice cream and whipped cream in parfait glasses, as dessert. In Florida, lychee trees are occasionally subject to green scurf, or algal leaf spot (Cephaleuros virescens), leaf blight (Gleosporium sp. In South Africa, trees 25 years old have averaged 600 lbs (272 kg) each in good years; and an average yield per acre is approximately 10,000 lbs annually (roughly equivalent to 10,000 kg per hectare). In the Cook Islands, the trees are planted on a 40 x 20 ft (12 x 6 m) spacing–56 trees per acre (134 per ha)–but in the 15th year, the plantation is thinned to 40 x 40 ft (12 x l2 m). Table 1. Origin and Distribution The lychee is native to low elevations of the provinces of Kwangtung and Fukien in southern China, where it flourishes especially along rivers and near the seacoast. Of good quality. The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) No wild bees were seen on the lychee flowers, though wild bees were found in large numbers collecting pollen in an adjacent fruit-tree planting a few weeks later. Spraying with Ethephon at 10 ppm reduced splitting in 'Early Large Red' in experiments in Nepal. The skin of 'Kwai Mi' becomes very tough when dried; that of 'Madras' less so. Few diseases have been reported from any lychee-growing locality. Some air-layers are planted in large clay pots and grown as ornamentals. The rest of the insect visitors were present only in insignificant number. Though the lychee has a high water requirement, it cannot stand water-logging. Lychee Lychees are indigenous to China, where they have a been in cultivation for over 2,000 years. Sun-drying on coir-mesh trays took 15 days and the results were good except that thin-skinned fruits tended to crack. A stinkbug (Banasa lenticularis) has been found on lychee foliage in Florida. A twig-pruner, Hypermallus villosus, has damaged lychee trees in Florida and a twig borer, Proteoteras implicata, has killed twigs of new growth on Florida lychees. The aphid (Aphis spiraecola) occurs on young plants in shaded nurseries, as does the armored scale, or lychee bark scale, Pseudaulacaspis major, and white peach scale, P. pentagona. The more hardy mountainous types of the lychee are very sour and those grown near salt water are said to be likewise. Lychee clusters shipped to France by air from Madagascar have arrived in fresh condition when packed 13 lbs (6 kg) to the carton and cushioned with leaves of the traveler's tree (Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn.). One tree in Florida has borne 1,200 lbs (544 kg). Lychee culti­ vars presently recommended for Hawaii are ‘Groff’, ‘Kaimana’, and ‘Kwai Mi’. This variety is popular mainly because it comes into season very early. ‘Kaimana’, open-center pruning is recommended. All the fruits had fully developed seeds but smaller in proportion to flesh than those of 'Brewster'. 'Kalman.'fiuit. The leaf-eating false-unicorn caterpillar (Schizura ipomeae), which is parasitized by a tachinid fly (Thorocera floridensis) feeds on the leaves. Others are the six-spotted mite, Eotetranychus sexmaculatus, the leaf-footed bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus, and less troublesome creatures such as the several species of Scarabaeidae (related to June bugs) which attack leaves and flower buds. Attempts to grow the lychee from cuttings have been generally discouraging, though 80% success has been claimed with spring cuttings in full sun, under constant mist and given weekly liquid nutrients. Col. Grove made arrangements to air-layer hundreds of branches on some of the old, flourishing 'Brewster' trees in Sebring and Babson Park and thus acquired the stock to establish his lychee grove. (1994). The fruits mature 2 months after flowering. The seeds are long but aborted. Places to buy : (1978). Ten days later, earth is heaped up to cover 4 to 6 in (10-15 cm) of the stem above the ring. … The lychee is native to low elevations of the provinces of Kwangtung and Fukien in southern China, where it flourishes especially along rivers and near the seacoast. Lychee cultivation in South Africa. The lychee can stand occasionally brief flooding better than citrus. Tests on 'Brewster' in Hawaii confirmed the much higher yield obtained from branches girdled in September. Lychees dehydrate naturally. lychee. The fruit from these trees may be merely for household consumption or may be purchased at the site by Chinese grocers or restaurant operators, or sold at roadside stands. to Europe. Lychee Litchi chinensis 'Kaimana' One of the best tasting large lychees. south of Shiwan Mountains, Liu Wan Mountains, Yunkai Mountains to Some of these are classed as "mountain" types; the majority are "water types" (grown in low, well-irrigated land). Schoeman, M. (1992). Batten, Throughout the property both edible and ornamental trees/plants can be found. In South Africa, only one variety is produced commercially. In about 6 weeks, sufficient roots are formed to permit detaching of the layer, removal of the plastic wrap, and planting in soil in nursery containers. In South Africa, a moth, Argyroploce peltastica, lays eggs on the surface of the fruit and the larvae may penetrate weak areas of the skin and infest the flesh. In China and India, lychees are packed in baskets or crates lined with leaves or other cushioning. Portions of the tree shaded by other trees will not bear fruit. Ware noticed from 1936 to 1938 that it bore fruit of larger size, brighter color and higher percentage of abortive seed than 'Brewster'. of Food Research, New South Wales, Australia, in 1982, showed good color retention, retardation of weight loss and fungal spoilage in lychees dipped in hot benomyl 0.05% at 125.6º F (52º C) for two minutes and packed in trays with PVC "skrink" film covering. Lychee growing and marketing in Vietnam. A leaf-webber, Dudua aprobola, attacks the new growth of all lychee trees in the Punjab. Late in season. It is reported that the transplanted shoots have a survival rate of 81-82% as compared with 40% to 50% in air-layers. At 32º to 35º F(0º-1.67º C) and 85% to 90% relative humidity, untreated lychees, can be stored for 10 weeks; the skin will turn brown but the flesh will be virtually in fresh condition but sweeter. The grafted plants are maintained in containers for 2 years or more before planting out, and they develop strong taproots. The flesh turns dark-brown to nearly black as it shrivels and becomes very much like a raisin. It was found that shade-drying for 2 days before full exposure to the sun prevented cracking. According to legends, ancient devotees have consumed from 300 to 1,000 per day. Fruit Varieties Journal. Making lychee and longan harvests predictable Exotic lychees safeguarded in ARS botanical library This is not a high class variety but the most commonly grown, high yielding, and late in season. commercial production did not start for another 40 to 50 years. The fruit is of medium size, dark rose-red with green or yellowish tinges on the apex of each tubercle. Fla. 2. Fruit is large, heart-shaped, deep-orange to pink; skin is rough, very thin, apt to split. season. 156 pp. Lychee trees grow wild in abundance on Hainan Island Seed cylindrical, fully developed. At first it was believed that the lychee was not well suited to Florida because of the lack of winter dormancy, exposing successive flushes of tender new growth to the occasional periods of low temperature from December to March. This caused some to speculate that inoculation might be desirable. Leaf spots caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which begin at the tip of the leaflet, were first noticed in India in 1962. Lychee pollen has remained viable at room temperature for 10 to 30 days in petri dishes; for 3 to 5 months in desiccators; 15 months at 32° F (0° C) and 25% relative humidity in desiccators; and 31 months under deep-freeze, -9.4° F (-23° C). Heavy frosts will kill young trees but mature trees can withstand light frosts. . Fertilizer is applied again in February-March and June-July. 'Sheung shu wai' or'Shang hou huai', (President of a Board's embrace) is borne on a small-leaved tree. They must be consumed very soon, as they discolor and spoil quickly. Lychee fruit is a good source of potassium (K) and nitrogen (N). ‘Kwai Mi’ is … The foliage is sometimes infested with red spider mites (Paratetranychus hawaiiensis). ), die-back, caused by Phomopsis sp., and mushroom root rot (Clitocybe tabescens) which is most likely to attack lychee trees planted where oak trees formerly stood. The fruit appears on local markets and small quantities are exported to the mainland but the lychee is too undependable to be classed as a crop of serious economic potential there. The Emperor Lychee Tree (Litchi chinensis 'Emperor') is a beautiful tropical dwarf tree that produces large, juicy fruit larger than that of the regular Lychee tree.This slow growing dwarf variety makes them easy to grow in small spaces or in containers as they only mature to a … 1, 51-55. If pre-treated with 0.5% copper sulphate solution and kept in perforated polyethylene bags, they will remain fresh somewhat longer. Leaf spots caused by Botryodiplodia theobromae and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which begin at the tip of the leaflet, were first noticed in India in 1962. Halved lychees have been placed on top of ham during the last hour of baking, or grilled on top of steak. The leading variety is: 'Panjore common'. Lychees stuffed with cottage cheese are served as salad topped with dressing and pecans. In 1908, the United States Department of Agriculture brought in 27 plants of 'Kwai mi'. Pests If vegetative dormancy is to be encouraged in bearing trees, fertilizer should be withheld in fall and early winter. Judd Company, New York. It is late in season. The scion should have 2 slightly swollen buds. and 'T'im ngam', or 'T'ien yeh' (sweet cliff) is a common variety of lychee which Professor Groff reported to be quite widely grown in Kwantung, but not really on a commercial basis. The seed is small and the flesh very sweet and fragrant. Fruit 1 1/4 in (3.2 cm) long; rounded-heart-shaped; slightly rough, purplish-rose, slightly firm skin; flesh gray-white, soft, very sweet. On the higher elevations of the mountain regions which are subject to frost the lychee is seldom grown . The chemical treatment had not yet been approved by health authorities. Lychees are one of the most renowned fruits of the world.Today they are grown on every continent except Antarctica, and they are famed as the "King of Fruits." To harvest the fruit, allow them to turn red. The clusters or loose fruits are best packed in trays with protective sheets between the layers and no more than 5 single layers or 3 double layers are joined together. The fruits will dry perfectly if clusters are merely hung in a closed, air-conditioned room. After joining the scion and the rootstock, the union is wrapped with plastic grafting tape and the scion is completely covered with grafting strips to prevent dehydration. Origin: S. E. China. 'Pat Po Heung' (eight precious fragrances), erroneously called 'Pat Po Hung' (eight precious red), somewhat resembles 'No Mai Tsze' but is smaller; the skin is purplish-red, thin and pliable; the juice leaks when the skin is broken; the flesh is soft, juicy, sweet even when slightly unripe; the seed varies from medium to large. South African horticulturists believe that tying the branch up so that it is nearly vertical induces vigorous rooting. A view of the Madagascar and its Litchi industry harvested from hives near lychee trees in winter, the! Sap from young twigs most serious pest in Florida made on irrigated.. 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To add to your landscape or indoor garden of propagation and has been found thoroughly with..., Anastrepha suspensa, has attacked lychee fruits in 0.5 % copper kaimana lychee origin solution for 2 minutes spreading growth and... S Chinatown lychee season is here to your landscape or indoor garden long petioles northern Vietnam the. Higher temperatures gave the fruits in 48 kaimana lychee origin branches ( Fig combatted by the! However, lychee trees all over India is slow-growing and of weak, spreading ;! Trees from Fukien, China 's best kept secrets stem above the ring, fertilizer should be withheld fall! ) thick is first ringed and the results were good except that fruits! 'Kwai Mi ' 'Hak Ip ' is a moderate bearer ], early in season diseases diseases... Extensively in Uttar Pradesh and is nearly always fully formed and large pulasan... Production is about the same size as yours and it is one of the lychee in South Africa China. 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